How an Incinerator Works

Incineration is a waste treatment process that involves the combustion of substances contained in waste materials.

Incineration and other high-temperature waste treatment systems are sometimes described as "thermal treatment".

Parts of an incinerator

Incinerators don't necessarily use state of the art technology, they use parts that are great at operating within high heat environments and excel while under stress. All parts in our incinerators have been selected due to their ability to stand the test of time and have been constructed and designed from the very best materials.

Primary Chamber

This is where the waste is loaded and ignited. In most incinerators, the ignition occurs due to the high ambient temperatures being retained within the chamber lining.

Secondary Chamber

Required by law in Europe, USA, Australia and Canada as it prevents the formation of harmful particulates. In many countries the law stipulates that flue gas must be resident in this secondary chamber for at least 2 seconds at 850°C or above.

Velocity Cowl

Most incinerators require a stack height of at least 3m. This will be higher in more built-up areas or where atmospheric conditions dictate. The design pushes gases high up into the air for wide desperation.

Control Panel & Thermocouples

These control the operation of the machine and ensure the chambers are up to temperature before any waste is loaded for incineration. The settings can be completely customised to the operators requirements depending on the waste type.


These are used to heat up the incinerator and are usually switched off during the combustion stage.

Fuel Tanks

As the name suggests this is where the fuel is stored. The burners will have direct lines into the tank when the incinerator is in use.

I8 75 exploded view
Incineration process

Incineration Process

Most waste streams will require some pre-preparation. In the long term, this can have a huge impact on the savings you can make.

  • Sort – remove any high-value recyclable items for resale.
  • Shred – normalise the particle size and add air to mix.
  • Dry – we suggest a maximum of 30% moisture to ensure the best efficiency.
  • Determine batch size – optimise batch size to achieve the lowest costs in the lowest time.
  • De-ash – remove ash from the system ready for the next batch.
  • Spot check – ensure chamber, burners and fuel lines are all in good condition.
  • Re-load – load chamber for next operation.

If you're ready to discuss how INCINER8 can help you solve the waste challenges faced by your organisation, talk to our friendly team.